[Editorial note: [...] indicates use of Coptic, Egyptian, or Babylonian text. Original script is available for viewing in the PDF format of this article.]
VOCABULARY, CUNEIFORM TRANSCRIPTIONS OF PROTOTYPES OF AUTOCHTHONOUS COPTIC. Fully vocalized prototypes of Coptic words are found in cuneiform transcriptions. Thus, it is known that the month name B [...] (S [...] and many variants) was pronounced in Late Egyptian [...] or something close to it. These transcriptions are often preceded by determinatives, such as (ilu), god; (in), male person; ([...]), town; and ([...]), country.
Three periods have to be distinguished (all dates according to Beckerath, 1971):
1. Middle-Babylonian transcriptions: the so-called Tell el-Amarna Letters, which comprise the correspondence of Amenophis II (1439 1413 B.c.) and Amenophis IV (Akhenaton) (1365-1349 B.C.) with their allies and vassals in Asia, tablets found in the foreign-office archives at Tell el-Amarna (central Egypt), and letters and documents of the Hittite royal archives of Boghazkeui (Asia Minor) of the time of Ramses II (1290-1224 B.c.).
2. Assyrian transcriptions: inscriptions, annals, and commercial documents from the time of Sargon II (722-705 B.C.), who conquered Palestine and received tribute from Bukurninip (Bocchoris in Greek), king of Egypt in 714 B.C.; of Assarhaddon (conquest of Memphis, 671 B.C.), and of Assurbanipal (conquest of the Delta, 667 B.C.).
3. New-Babylonian and Persian transcriptions: mainly commercial documents of the time of Cambyses (525-522 B.C.), Darius I (521 486 B.c.), Artaxerxes I (464-424 B.C.), and Artaxerxes II (404-359 B.C.).
Some examples are given below.
(ilu) A-ma-a-na, (ilu) A-ma-na: the god Amun, B [...]; (m) [...], n. pr. m. Amenophis, where the group [...] corresponds to the qualitative B [...]; ([...]) A-na: n. bc. Heliopolis, Egyptian ’Iwnw, Hebrew ’On: B [...]; (m) Ri-a-na-pa: n. pr. m. Ranofer, literally “the good Sun” or similar, where according to Edel the name was pronounced [...] or similar, but in any case with Ra’ and not with [...], sun = S, B [...]; (ilu) [...]: the god Horus, S, B [...].
(m) U-na-mu-nu: n. pr. m. Wen-Amun or similar, which contains the name of Amun, B [...]; (m) Bu-kur-ni-ni-ip: n. pr. m. Bocchoris, Egyptian B3k n rn-f’ literally “servant of his name,” where the Coptic form would be B [...] (the transcription should read *(m) Bu-ku-un-ri-ni-ip); (m) [...]: n. pr. m. Horus, S, B [...]; ([...]) Me-im-pe: n. loc. Memphis, B [...].
New-Babylonian and Persian Period
(m) [...]: n. pr. m. [...], literally “Amon is his strength,” with Amunu = [...] or [...], B [...]; (m) Na-’a- (ilu) E-si n. pr. m. literally “Great is Isis,” where the Coptic form would be B [...]
Middle-Babylonian [...] corresponds to later (i.e., Assyrian or Neo-Assyrian or Persian) [...] (see Table 1). This comparison shows that long [...] before 1000 B.C. is transcribed as long [...] after 1000 B.C. This long [...] must be read [...], as the Coptic has [...] in two cases ([...] and [...]). After a nasal in A-mu-nu and in nu-u-pi (reconstructed), the Coptic has [...], which is due to postnasalization. As a matter of fact, it is not known if A-mu-nu and nu-u-pi were still pronounced [...] and [...] or already [...] and [...].
[See PDF version of this article for Table 1.]
Click tabs to swap between content that is broken into logical sections.