SHUKRALLAH JIRJIS (Mu‘allim), Coptic contemporary of the French Expedition to Egypt and a close friend and colleague of General Y ‘QUB. Though the particulars of his early life are unknown, we must assume that he was born in the first half of the eighteenth century. During French rule in Egypt, he is known to have headed the finance department and to have devised a taxation system. The system met all the needs of the state without undue pressures on the taxpayers, who were accustomed to the extortionate and erratic impositions of the Mamluks. Apparently he earned the respect and admiration of General Ménou, who wrote to Napoleon praising him and commending him as a person who took the interests of his country to heart. It is said that Napoleon sent General Ya‘qub a missive in his own hand in which Shukrallah was cited.
AZIZ S. ATIYA
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