Turks; Mamluks; Ottoman Empire; Copts; Conversion; Islam; Monks; Monasteries; Taxation; Napoleon I, Emperor of the French, 1769-1821; Roman Catholic Church; Missionaries; Coptic Church; Administration; French language
'Amr ibn al-'As; Arab Conquest of Egypt; Arabs; Asceticism; Alexandria; Cairo (Egypt); Byzantine Empire; Coptic Church; Heraclius, Emperor of the East, ca. 575-641; History; Chalcedonian Church; Melchite Church; Orthodoxy
Roman Catholic Church; Rome; Istanbul (Turkey); Schism, Acacian, 484-519; Alexandria (Egypt); Timothy Aelurus, Patriarch of Alexandria, d. 477; Theology; Politics; Patriarchs and patriarchate; Coptic Church; Copts; Roman Empire; Excommunication
Copts; Coptic Church; Fatimid dynasty; Politics; Law and society; al-Hakim; Persecution; Islam; Saladin, Sultan of Egypt and Syria, 1137-1193; Jews; Judaism; Christianity; Conversion - Christianity; Christian converts; Muslim converts from...