Literature; Coptic language; Coptic literature; Copyists; Council of Chalcedon (451); Gnosticism; Gnostic literature; Anthony, of Egypt, Saint, ca. 250-355 or 6; Athanasius, Saint, Patriarch of Alexandria, d. 373.; Nag Hammadi library; Pachomius,...
Turks; Mamluks; Ottoman Empire; Copts; Conversion; Islam; Monks; Monasteries; Taxation; Napoleon I, Emperor of the French, 1769-1821; Roman Catholic Church; Missionaries; Coptic Church; Administration; French language
Crusades; History; Council of Chalcedon (451); Christology; Dioscorus, Patriarch of Alexandria, d. 454; Islam; Jerusalem; Historians; History of the Patriarchs; Patriarchs and patriarchate; Ayyubid dynasty; Fatimid dynasty; Mamluks
Alexandria (Egypt); Monasteries; Mediterranean Sea; Jerome, Saint, d. 419 or 20; Monks; Hermits; Relics; Coptic Church; Copts; Coptic language; Patriarchs and patriarchate; Pachomian monasticism; Syriac language; History of the Patriarchs